Australia (Austrálie)

Kategorie: Angličtina (celkem: 860 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 24. července 2005
  • Zobrazeno: 5297×

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Australia (Austrálie)

  • Australia is situated on the southern hemisphere
  • Australia is the smallest continent
  • surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans
  • first discovered by the Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch navigators in the 17th century (Abel Tasman)
  • for England it was discovered by Captain James Cook in 1770, he landed at Botany Bay (today Sydney)
  • about 20 years later – there were established the first British colony New South Wales – it was a penal colony, because England deported it’s convicts to the new continent
  • during 19th century – came many more immigrants from all over the world
  • 1901 Australia became a British dominion and it was called the Commonwealth of Australia
  • the original inhabitants = aborigines – the Australian blacks, they were hunters and they invented many peculiar weapons – e.g. boomerang.
  • similarly as in Canada there were trends to assimilate the Australian blacks – it damaged their culture and their tribes
  • the estimations there are about 150 000 of these people; they were forced to live in reservations, very often in Northern Territory, where are the worst conditions
  • today there live about 17 million people

Political system of Australia

  • Australia is the federation of 6 states and 2 territories (the third may be Norfolk isles)
  • STATES:
    • Western Australia – capital Perth
    • South Australia – cap. Adelaide
    • Queensland – Brisbane
    • New South Wales – Sydney
    • Victoria – Melbourne
    • Tasmania – cap. Hobart, isle
  • TERRITORIES
    • Australian Capital Territory of Canberra
    • Northern Territory - the formal head – the British monarch (in the last referendum the Australians were voting to stay in the British Commonwealth
  • government general – the representative of the queen
  • each state has its own government called councils and constitution
  • in Canberra: Federal Parliament, Federal Government, Federal Constitution
  • Federal Government is headed by the Prime Minister, which is the most powerful person – today it is John Howard

Geographical characteristic of Australia

  • dry climate
  • little rainfall
  • many deserts – the best known: The Great Sandry Desert (WA), The Gibson Desert (WA), The Great Victoria Desert (WA-SA)
  • in the centre of Australia (in NT) – Ayers Rock – unique rock formation, the symbol of aborigines
  • along the eastern coast there stretches the highest mountain range of the continent – it is called the Great Dividing Range
  • in the south of these range there are the Australian Alps with the highest mountain of Australia – Mt. Kosciusko
  • along the north eastern there is the sea reserve – the Great Barrier Reef
  • because of the climate not many rivers
  • some of the rivers are only temporarily – if it is too hot, they dry up
  • the best known rivers (in the south east) – The Murray, The Darling
  • temporarily lakes
  • in the SA – Lake Gairdner, Lake Torrens, Lake Frome, Lake Eyre

Fauna

  • as the continent was isolated from the others, during a long time there have evolved quite a few peculiar animal species
  • the best known are marsupials
  • the symbol of Australia – the koala bear, it lives in eucalyptus trees
  • wombat
  • possum
  • kangaroo –they carry their youngs in pouches
  • Platypus – it lays eggs like a reptile, but suckles it’s youngs like a mammal; it lives under the water, it has flat bill and webbed feet
  • Echidna
  • Ostrich Emu
  • the wild dog Dingo
  • the black swan

Australia is a highly developed country with developed industries (mining, food industries – meat dairy products; textile industry – wool) and agriculture. Australia is the biggest producer of wool and meat especially lamb (they breed sheep). It’s economically closely linked with strong economies of Asia and America.



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